English Grammar

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Adjectives

Adjectives are describing words that tell us more about persons, animals, places and things.

Read these sentences.

1. Mohini has a red dress
2. It was an interesting movie.
3. Father bought four chocolates.

In sentence 1, the word 'red' tells us about the color of the 'dress'.

In sentence 2, the word 'interesting' tells us about the kind of the 'movie'.

In sentence 3, the word 'four' tells us about the number of 'chocolates'.

POSTION OF ADJECTIVES

Adjectives are usually placed befor the nouns they describe.

Example: He is an old man

Old is adjective and man is noun.

However, sometimes, the adjective can be placed after a noun.

Example: The man is old

Adjectives can be divided into the folowing types

Adjectives

Adjectives of quality

Read the following sentences.

1. This is a story book.

It tells us about the kind of book.

2. Meena is a good dancer.

It tells us about the kind of dancer.

These words 'story','good' are adjectives since they tell us about 'book' and 'dancer'.

Adjective of quality is an adjective that tells us about the king of nature of a person, thing or animal. Examples: small, big and large.

It answers the question: what kind of?

Examples of Adjective of quality:

1. The rose is a beautiful flower.
2. Mumbai is abig city.
3. Ashoka was a great ruler.
4. Honest people are always respected.
5. Madhu is a good dancer and an exellent cook.
6. My grand mother is old and weak.
7. The children are sweet and intellegent.
8. Tagore was a great poet and author.
9. We didn't go to school yesterday since it was a rainy day.
10. Vaibhav is a naughty child.
11. Street food is unhealthy.
12. The beautiful princess married the handsome prince.

Adjectives of quantity

Read these sentences.

1. All the students are present in the class.

It tells us about the number of students.

2. They will return after two weeks.

It tells us about the number of weeks.

The word 'all and 'two' are adjectives since they describe the nouns 'student' and 'weeks' respectively.

An adjective of number is an adjective that tells us about the number of persons, things or animals, Example: one, two and many. It answers the question: how many?

More About Adjectives of Number and Adjectives of Quantity.

Adjectives like 'second', 'fourth', 'fifth' are also adjectives of number. They are called ordinal adjectives and show the order in which a person or thing stands.

Some objectives may be both adjective of quantity and adjective of number depending upon their use.


Example:

1. I have enough work for the day.
2. I have read enough storues over the weekend.

In sentence 1, 'enough' tells us 'how much work'? So it is an adjective of quantity.

In sentence 2, 'enough' tells us 'how many stories'? So it is an adjective of number.

Here are some more examples.

1. Some people want to meet you.
some is the adjective of number.

2. Meena wanted some money.
some is the adjective of quatity.

3. He drank all the water in the jug.
all is the adjective of quantity.

4. All the cows belog to the farmer.
all is the adjective of number.

Let us learn about some adjectives of quantity and quality which convey the same idea.

1. Little, Few

Both little and few convey the same idea. But little is the adjective of quantity where as few is an adjective of number. Little is used with uncountable nouns. Few is used with countable nouns.

Examples :
a little smile, a little work. (smile and work are uncountables)
a few people, a few chairs.(people and chairs are countables)
  • Much, Many
Much and many also convey the same idea. But much is an adjective of quantity whereas many is an adjective of numbers.
Examples :
much help, much work (help and work are uncountables)
many girls, many books (girls and books are countables)

D. Fill in the blanks with the correct words.
1. For this you have to go through ......................... pain. (a little, a few)
2. I want ........................ oil. (a little, a few)
3. I have too ....................... homework for today. (much,many)
4. We need ........................ more hours to complete the work. (a little, a few)
5. The baby is ....................... happy now. (much,many)

E. Underline the adjective of quantity and circle the adjective of numbers in the following sentences.
1. Manish goes to his art class five days a week.
2. Many students were absent yesterday.
3. There was one mistake in my test copy.
4. There are twelve months in one year.
5. Please give me some water, I am thirsty.
6. How much salt should I put in the soup?
7. The man wanted some money.
8. There is little food in the kitchen.
9. All the birds returned to their nests in the evening.

Demonstrative Adjectives

Read these sentences.
1. This bike is Rahul's.
This- It tells us which bike.
2. I can see that mango tree. that- It tells us which mango tree.
The words 'this' and 'that' are adjectives since they describe 'bike' and 'tree' respectively. The word 'this' points out 'which' bike is 'Rahul's'. The word 'that' points out 'which' mango tree 'I can see' . 'This' and 'that' are demonstrative adjectives. Demonstrative means pointing out.

A demonstrative adjective is an adjective which is used to point out naming words.
Examples : this, that, these, those, such are demonstrative adjectives.
It answer the question : Which one?

More about Demonstrative adjectives
  • 'This' and 'these' are used to point out persons or things which are near.
  • 'That' and 'those' are used to point out persons or things that are far away.
  • 'That' and 'this' are used with singular nouns.
  • 'Those' and 'these' are used with plural nouns.

F. Underline the demonstrative adjectives.
1. Who gave you this book ?
2. Such a fantastic match it was!
3. Komal lives in that house.
4. Those boys are my friends.
5. I have seen that movie.
6. Such kids are loved by all.
7. Did you join that school ?

G. Rewrite the following sentences by changing the words printed in bold to plural form.
1. Rohan wants that pen. ..........................................
2. Mita was looking for this book. ..........................................
3. I got this dress from the market. ............................................
4. Such a beautiful picture! .................................................
5. I don't want this bag. .................................................

H. Rewrite the following sentences by changing the words printed in bold to singular form. Make other changes if required.
1. I want those bangles. ...........................................
2. I have read those books. ..........................................
3. I have been to those buildings. ........................................
4. I don't watch such movies. ............................................
5. I loved those flowers in the garden. ........................................

I. Fill in the blanks with the correct options from the brackets.
1. ............................. garden is so lovely. (this/these)
2. ............................. boys study in my class. (those/that)
3. Pia has brought ........................bag with her. (this/these)
4. .......................... diamonds are very expensive. (those/that)
5. Who brought ........................ packets. (this/these)

Interrogative Adjectives
Read these sentences.
1. What animal is that ?
2. Whose books are you reading ?
3. Which dress you want ?
The words What, Whose and Which are adjectives since they describe animal, book and dress respectively. As they ask question, these adjectives are called interrogative adjectives.
An interrogative adjective is an adjective which ask a question. Examples : what, whose and which are interrogative adjective.

Possessive Adjectives
Read these sentences.
1. My book is lying on the table.
My- It tells us whose book.
2. They sold their house.
their- It tells us whose house.
'My' and 'their' are adjectives. 'My' tells us that the bag belongs to me or is possessed by me. 'Their house' means the house possessed by them or belonging to them.
These adjectives show possession or belonging and are called possessive adjectives.
A possessive adjective is an adjective that shows possession or belonging.



Examples : his, her, our and your.
It answers the question : whose ?

J. Underline the interrogative adjectives and circle the possessive adjectives in the following sentences.
1. Children, open page 15 of your English book.
2. Whose books are lying on the table ?
3. My pet is not well.
4. Which insect is crawling on my pencil box ?
5. Which dress do you like the best ?

K. Pick the adjectives in the following story and mention their types.
One day two merchants named Ram and Shyam came to the magnificent court of Akbar. Ram said, "Your Majesty! This is my friend Shyam. I had given him my treasure before going on some work in a new town. After returning from there when I asked him to return that treasure, he is denying everything."
Shyam said, "No, Your Majesty! You can check my house, Ram never gave me his treasure. He is lying."
Akbar told his soldiers to check Shyam's house in the evening. The soldiers did not find anything. On the next day Akbar said, "We could not find anything in Shyam's house. So, Ram must be lying." Birbal, Akbar's intelligent courtier said, "Your Majesty! Give me a chance to solve this case. Actually, I have found the treasure and I have kept in my house. I will submit it in your court tomorrow." All were surprised to hear this. When the court was dismissed Birbal asked the royal soldiers to follow Shyam in disguise.
Shyam went home and after sometime he came out. He went into a deep forest and dug a place near a big tree. He took out a huge bag in which there were the lost ornaments. Immediately, the soldiers arrestesd him. They produced him in the court before Akbar. Birbal said, "Your Majesty! I did not find the lost treasure. I wanted to find out whether Shyam was innocent. But, when I said so, Shyam became anxious and went and checked the place where he had really hidden the treasure. So, please arrest Shyam and return this treasure to Ram."

L. Examples of the adjectives that mean the same as.
1. full of happiness = Happy
2. full of colour = Colourful
3. liked by many = Popular
4. without fear = Fearless
5. made of gold = Golden
6. full of kindness = Kind
7. full of doubt = Doubtful
8. full of interest = Interesting
9. without home = Homeless
10. full of courage = Courageous

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