English Grammar

Learn English Grammar

Nouns Number



A noun which refers to one person, animal, place or thing is said to be in the singular number.

Example: boy, girl, cow, elephant, chair, table, country, park

A noun which refers to more than one person, animal, place, or things is said to be the plural number

Example: boys, girls, cows, elephants, chairs, tables, countries, parks

How to form Plural Nouns

In most cases we add 's' to the singular noun to form the plural.

Examples
Singular Plural
bat + s bats
ball + s balls
cow + s cows
elephant + s elephants
chair + s chairs
In case of nouns ending in 's', 'ss', 'sh', 'ch' or x we add '-es' to thr singular noun. Example:
Singular Plural
bus + es buses
glass + es glasses
wish + es wishes
church + es churches
fox + es foxes



In case of nouns ending in '-f or 'fe, we change 'f' or 'fe' into '-ves'. Example:
Singular Plural
leaf leaves
calf calves
half halves
life hives
In case of nouns ending in '-f or 'fe, we change 'f' or 'fe' into '-ves'. Example:
Singular Plural
leaf leaves
calf calves
half halves
life lives
Remember the following exceptions to this rule- Example:
Singular Plural
chief chiefs
hoof hoofs
roof roofs
proof proofs
When nouns end in consonant '+y', we change y to 'ies'.- Example:
Singular Plural
army armies
navy navies
body bodies
baby babies



When nouns end in vowel '+y', we add 's' to the singular noun.- Example:
Singular Plural
boy + s boys
toy + s toys
monkey + s monkeys
valley + s vallys
There are nouns which do not follow any of these rules
Some of these nouns form plurals by adding suffixes other than 's' or 'es' and so on..- Example:
Singular Plural
child children
ox oxen
Some of these nouns form plurals by changing a single letter or several letters of the singular form.- Example:
Singular Plural
foot feet
tooth teeth
mouse mice
woman women



There are some nouns which do not change in their plural form- Example:
Singular Plural
sheep sheep
deer deer
fish fish
To know whether the word is being used as a singular or plural noun, we have to understand the sentence.

Example:

  • The child wanted to see a deer.
    When he when to the zoo he saw many dear.

  • Several sheep were grazing in the field.
    A sheep was black in color.

  • We saw many colourful fish in the aquarium..
    Salmon is a fish famous for its oil.

  • Sometimes, we use 'fishes' also

    Example: We saw many kinds of fishes in the pond.
    (Here 'fishes suggest many kinds of fishes.)

    Similarly, 'fruit' is used in singular.

    Example: We should have fruit with breakfast every day.
    We use 'fruits' when we mean different varieties of fruits.
    Example: Different types of fruits are available in winter.

    There are some nouns which have only plural forms.

    Examples:

    trousers
    spectacles
    jeans
    scssors
    clothes
    Example:

    1. The trousers do not fit you.
    2. Scissors are sharp, so handle carefully.
    3. The clothes are bought from Jaipur.
    There are many nouns which have only singular forms.

    Example: Singular
    furniture
    news
    information
    Example: The furniture was bought from this store.
    This information is very valuable for the students.