English Grammar

Learn English Grammar


We know that nouns are the names of things, persons, places, animals, and even ideas. Example: girl, boy, Ram, Sham, table, chair.

Learn Nouns


Read these sentences.

1. The boy lives in a city
2. Vishal lives in Hyderabad

In sentence 1, boy and city are common nouns because they give common names to a person and a place.

In sentence 2, vishal and Hyderabad are proper nouns because they give a specific name to a person and a place.

Common Nouns give common names to persons, animals, places, or things which are of same kind. Examples: boy, city, girl, country.

Proper Nouns give special names to particular persons, animals, places or things.

Examples: Ankit, Hyderabad, Anita, India.

Common Nouns Proper Nouns
Country India
boy Virat
girl Seema
river Alaknanda
month January

Note the proper nouns begin with capital letters.

Common noun: I want to be a writer.
Proper noun: Chetan Bhagat wrote many books.

Common noun: I'd like to adopt a cat.
Proper noun: Cleopatra is the cutest kitten ever.

Common noun: Would you like a cookie?
Proper noun: I'm craving Oreos.

Common noun: Let's go to the city.
Proper noun: Let's go to Delhi.

Common noun: My teacher starts work before sunup.
Proper noun: Mr. Gaur seems to understand what students need.

Common noun: I think that's a planet, not a star.
Proper noun: I can see Jupiter tonight.

Common noun: He's always hanging out with his girlfriend.
Proper noun: He never goes anywhere without Sapna.

Common noun: There are a lot of important documents in the archives.
Proper noun: There are many important documents at The State Central Library.


Imagine two situations: (1) When your team wins and (2) when your mother scolds you. In the first situation, you experience happiness and in the second situation you experience sadness. Happiness and sadness are abstract nouns.

Similarly, we know what 'honesty' and 'beauty' mean but we can not touch or see them. When we talk about innocence of a baby, we do not see the innocence, what we see is the baby because innocence is a quality.

An abstract noun is the name of some quality, feeling or idea, we can only think of or feel, but can never touch or see.

Some more examples of abstract nouns are given here.

Remember: Abstract nouns are usually used in the singular form.

Exceptions: memories, pleasures, experiences.


Read these sentences. 1. He gave me a bouquet of flowers on my birthday. 2. A flock of sheep was gazing in the field. The highlighted words are nouns. Bouquet stands for collection of flowers, flock indicates a group of sheep.

The nouns 'flock' and 'bouquet' are collective nouns

Some more examples of collective nouns are given below.

A catch of fish.
An army of ants.
A flight of birds.
A flock of birds.
A haul of fish.
A flock of sheep.
A herd of deer/cattle/elephants/goats/buffaloes.
A hive of bees.
A string of pearls
A tuft of grass
A crew of sailors
A bunch keys
A bundle of sticks
A team of players

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