English Grammar

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Present Perfect tense



Read these sentences.
1. I have caught a fish.
2. They have reached the station already.
3. The bus has just left the stand.
The words printed in bold are verbs and they are in the present perfect tense.
Examples :
'have caught', 'have reached', and 'has left'.
Note that with the present perfect tense, we often use words like 'already', 'just' and so on.
The present perfect tense tells us about actions which have already been completed or have just been completed.

FORM OF THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
We use : has/have + past participle form of the verb.
Examples :


1. I have caught a fish.
have + past participle form of the verb 'catch'.
2. They have reached the station already.
have + past participle form of the verb 'reach'.
3. The bus has just left the stand.
has + past participle form of the verb 'leave'.

A verbs has three major forms-present, past and past participle.
Examples :

Present Past Past Participle
catch caught caught
pull pulled pulled

FORMING PAST AND PAST PARTICIPLE FORMS

  • In most cases, we form the past and past participle by adding '-ed' to the verb.


Examples :
Present Past Past Participle
reach + ed = reached reached
work + ed = worked worked
wash + ed = washed washed
miss + ed = missed missed
talk + ed = talked talked

  • In case of most words ending in '-e', we add '-d'.


Examples :

Present Past Past Participle
arrive + d = arrived arrived
bake + d = baked baked
hate + d = hated hated
love + d = loved loved

  • When words ends a consonant + '-y', such as 'carry', 'marry', we replace '-y' with '-ied'.


Examples :

Present Past Past Participle
carry carried carried
marry married married
try tried tried
cry cried cried

  • When words ends with a vowel + '-y', such as 'pray', 'play', we add '-ed'.


Examples :

Exceptions :

Present Past Past Participle
pray + ed = prayed prayed
play + ed = played played
Present Past Past Participle
pay paid paid
say said said

Here are some verbs which do not follow any rules when we change them to their participle forms.

  • Words which do not change form.


Present Past Past Participle
bet bet bet
bid bid bid
cast cast cast
cut cut cut
hit hit hit
hurt hurt hurt
shut shut shut

  • Here are words which have the same past and past participle forms.


Present Past Past Participle
creep crept crept
keep kept kept
sit sat sat
feel felt felt
meet met met
build built built
hear heard heard
win won won
bring brought brought
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
teach taught taught
tell told told
think thought thought
leave left left
shine shone shone
make made made
lose lost lost
sleep slept slept
stand stood stood

  • Words which have three different forms.


Present Past Past Participle
bite bit bit/bitten
hide hid hidden
blow blew blown
fly flewn flown
grow grew grown
know knew known
forget forgot forgotten
fall fell fallen
break broke broken
choose chose chosen
rise rose risen
speak spoke spoken
write wrote written
eat ate eaten
draw drew drawn
give gave given
drink drank drunk
go went gone
ring rang rung
see saw seen
sing sang sung
A. Write the past and past participle form of the following verbs.
1. buy
2. cut
3. bring
4. blow
5. hurt
6. eat
7. know
8. shut
9. catch
10. sleep
11. see
12. tell
13. fall
14. break
15. think
16. pay
17. fly
18. bake
Fill in the blanks with present perfect form of the verbs given in brackets.


1. I ................... my answer sheet properly before submitting. (check)
2. My uncle ................ this picture. (draw)
3. I ................... mother to work hard and do well in my studies. (promise)
4. Manya .................. her dinner already. (eat)
5. The kids ................. the glass windows. (break)
6. My mother ................. me a new comic. (give)
7. The dog .................. into the well. (fall)
8. Veena .................. her finger while working in the kitchen. (cut)
9. Mrs Roy .................. to our teacher regarding Nita's performance in class. (speak)
10. We ................... to our new house in Vikaspuri. (shift)

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