English Grammar

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Punctuation means putting pauses at the right place in sentences to express the meaning clearly and to make it easier to understand.

Some of the punctuation marks that we use are -
comma (,), full stop (.), exclamation mark (!), question mark (?), apostrophe ('), and inverted commas (" ").

Let us discuss the functions of the punctuation marks.

Comma has the following uses :

  • to separate words in a series
Examples :
1. Bring potatoes , tomatoes , paneer and chilli from the market.
2. The kitchen was sweet , cute and beautiful.
[Remember, don't put comma before 'and']
  • to separate expressions like 'thank you', 'yes', 'well', 'in fact', 'however'
Examples :
1. Yes , I will go to the market with you.
2. The announcement was , in fact , made by the government.
3. Thank you , sir.
4. We lost the first match of the tournament. However , we managed to win the second.
  • to separate the rest of the sentence from the name of the person being spoken to
Examples :
1. What are you doing , Kartik ?
2. Jiya , please pass me the salt.
  • to separate groups of words in a sentence
Examples :

1. If you work hard , you will win.
2. The Principal of the school , the Director and the Headmistress were present on the occasion.
  • to separate question tags
Examples :
1. He was absent , wasn't he ?
2. He wasn't crying , was he ?

The full stop is used at the end of a statement or a command.
Examples :
1. Come here . (Command)
2. English is my favourite subject . (Statement)

It is used at the end of a question.
Examples :
1. Do you like ice cream or chocolates ?
2. How are you ?

It is used at the end of an exclamation mark.
Examples :
1. What a beautiful dress it is !
2. How pleasant the weather is !

  • It shows possession or belonging.
Examples :
1. Meeta' s bag is lost.
2. The cat' s tail is short.
3. Mallika' s hair is very long.
4. The boys' hostel is next to the park.
To show possession, we put ' before s , in case of singular and plural nouns not ending in 's'.
Example : Sonia ' s.
We put the ' after s in case of singular or plural nouns ending in 's'.
Examples :

girls ', Keats '
  • It helps in writing short forms.
Examples :
1. did not - didn't.
She did not attend the party.
She didn't attend the party.
2. I am - I'm
I am going to the fair.
I'm going to the fair.

We use Inverted commas (" ") to indicate the exact words spoken by a person.
Examples :
1. Sonali said, " I have come first in the race."
2. " Open page 52 of your book, " said Mrs Sen.

We use capital letters for the following :
  • the first letter of the first word in a sentence
Examples :
1. The Lion is the king of the jungle.
2. Painting is my hobby.
  • the first letter of all proper nouns
Examples :
1. She lives in Bhopal.
2. Our school will re-open on Monday.
3. My father reads 'The Statesman'.
4. Mount Everest is the highest peak in the Himalayas.
  • the pronoun 'I'
Example :
Meena and I are best friends.
  • the importants words in the headings of books, movies and stories
Examples :
1. The Ramayana.
2. The Kung-fu Panda.
3. The Discovery of India.
  • Every new line of a poem may usually being with a capital letter.
Example :
1. In winter I get up at night.
2. And dress by yellow candle light.

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